Diabetes diagnosis tests
High level of glucose in blood and later appear in urine is called as diabetes mellitus. So glucose is the most important test to a diabetic. The fasting blood glucose level test is the most common screening diagnosis test for diabetes and pre-diabetes. It is usually ordered when someone has symptoms of diabetes or for a person having high diabetes risk factors.
Pre diabetes, diabetes type 1, diabetes type 2 and gestational diabetes are all diagnosed only through blood tests. Even if the result is positive, it should be reconfirmed on another day.
Fasting plasma glucose test (FPG): According to the American Diabetes Association, either a fasting plasma glucose (fasting for about 8 hour) or an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) may be used to diagnose diabetes and pre-diabetes. But normally recommends the fasting plasma glucose test because it is easier, faster, and less expensive to perform compared to oral glucose tolerance test. Fasting plasma glucose test measures blood glucose level in blood after 12 to 14 hours of fasting and it is used in diabetes diagnosis.
Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT): OGTT requires to having a fasting plasma glucose test, followed by drinking a standard amount of glucose solution to “challenge” their system, followed by another plasma glucose test 2 hours later. If there is any abnormal result, either test should be repeated on another day to confirm a diagnosis of diabetes. The oral glucose tolerance test measures the body’s ability in glucose metabolism and clearing excess glucose in bloodstream.
Random plasma glucose test : The random plasma glucose test measures plasma glucose levels at any time without fasting or no worry about what you have ate, so called as casual plasma glucose test. The random plasma glucose test measures plasma glucose levels without fasting or no worry about what you have ate, so called as casual plasma glucose test.
Glucose challenge test: Gestational diabetes is usually diagnosed using a glucose challenge test (GCT) as a screen, followed by OGTT if the screen test result is abnormal.
Diabetics must monitor their own blood glucose levels, often several times a day, to determine how far above or below their glucose level is and, based on their doctor’s recommendation. This is usually done by placing a drop of blood (obtained by pricking the skin with a small lancet device), onto a glucose strip and then inserting the strip into the glucose monitor, a small electronic machine that provides a digital readout of the blood glucose level.
Glycated hemoglobin A1C: A1c (also called hemoglobin A1c or glycohemoglobin or Glycated hemoglobin A1C) is a test that is recommended several times a year to monitor patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. It is a measure of the average amount of glucose present in the blood over the last 2 to 3 months, which helps the doctor to find how well a treatment plan is working to control the patient’s blood glucose levels over time.